Ultrasound and Elastographic Features predicting Axillary Nodal Metastasis in Breast Cancer
This article was originally published by Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. and was migrated to Scientific Scholar after the change of Publisher; therefore Scientific Scholar has no control over the quality or content of this article.
How to cite this article: Phatak SV, Shinde RK, Gupta NA, Pawar G, Phatak PS. Ultrasound and Elastographic Features predicting Axillary Nodal Metastasis in Breast Cancer. Int J Recent Surg Med Sci 2017;3(2):127-129.
Lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in cases of carcinoma breast. In this pictorial essay, various sonographic and elastographic signs of lymph node metastasis are described with classical images.
Axillary lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer and remains crucial on which individual treatment decisions are made.1 Mammography has its limitations in detecting metastatic lymph nodes because the entire axillary region cannot be adequately evaluated with this method. Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging do not have a place in routine staging because of higher costs and possibility of side effects.2 Ultrasonography (USG) is the most widely used imaging method for detection of axillary lymph node metastasis and for their characterization.3
Ultrasonography Appearance of Normal Axillary Lymph Node (Fig. 1)
Ultrasonography Features of Malignant Axillary Lymph Node
Cortical Thickening (Fig. 2)
Marked Hypoechogenicity and Loss of Fatty Hilum (Fig. 3)
Calcification (Fig. 4)
Capsular Breach (Fig. 5)
Longitudinal–transverse Axis Ratio (Fig. 6)
Metastasis to axillary lymph node is an important factor in the prognosis of early-stage breast cancer and crucial for decision-making in management. There are many classical gray-scale and elastographic features that predict metastasis to axillary lymph node. These features are discussed in brief and classical images are illustrated in patients of breast cancer. These features help in early detection of lymph node metastasis.
Source of support:
Conflict of interest: